There are 2 garlic varieties
Allium Sativum: hard-necked (Ophioscorodon) and soft-necked garlics (Sativum). The hard-neck garlics tend to have fewer and larger cloves and also are more colourful. Soft-necks however, have twice as many cloves per bulb as the hard-necks.
Hard-neck garlic has a strong, woody central stem which produces a flower or scape which runs through the center of the bulb. It prospers in colder climates. They say that hard-necks include the best tasting garlics. Popular hard-neck garlics are Porcelain, Rocambole, Purple Stripe, Marbled Purple Stripe…
Soft-neck garlic was developed from the hard-necks over centuries of cultivation, selection and changing growing conditions. It has a soft central stem surrounded by layers of cloves. It produces large bulbs. It is easy to grow, is very adaptable and can keep for up to 10 months. This type of garlic has lost its ability to bolt and produce the flowering parts.
Out of these 2 garlic varieties you are more likely to see soft-necks like Artichoke Garlics on a regular basis as they are commonly sold in grocery stores and supermarkets. You might also see Silverskin Garlics more than the others, as they are used often in garlic braids.
In your local supermarket you are also likely to find wild garlic and elephant garlic. Wild garlic, known also as Ramsons garlic of the Allium Ursinum species (not Allium Sativum), is native to Asia & Northern Europe.